Hardware design is the most critical aspect to keep in mind while dealing with IoT devices. In order to satisfy all the features and requirements of the IoT products, there are many challenges that are to be overcome in terms of hardware design. These challenges are to be solved by IoT manufacturers during the hardware designing phase of the embedded devices.
1. High Power Dissipation
An embedded hardware system needs an increasing number of transistors with an acceptable power consumption ratio. With an increase in gate density, the power dissipation per transistor increases, thereby increasing the power density of the system. An IoT device during its operations can send and receive data remotely, for which the devices are connected to an IoT gateway that collects such information and sends them to the cloud. The electric power required for an average household will also increase as the IoT devices increases in number. The exchange of data operation is one of the most expensive tasks from the power management point of view as it involves the radio connection through cellular, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and so on. It is difficult to meet these power requirements. The overall power consumption of the system should be reduced by means in efficient system architecture design. So the devices need to be designed such that its power consumption should be low and hardware design needs to take care of that.
2. Security Concern
Security is a major concern in IoT devices. A lot of this concern goes to the people that deal with the software part of these devices, but a lot of it is also hardware-dependent, which need to perform securely in the real-time embedded environment. Embedded IoT systems perform various control functions that require safety and need to eliminate all the unacceptable risks to meet functional safety requirements. The design of the system has to be secure with cryptographic algorithms. It involves different approaches to secure all the components of embedded systems from prototype to deployment.
3. Cost Considerations
Apart from flexibility and security, embedded systems are tightly constrained by cost. In embedded IoT, the components have to be decided based on cost constraints to a large extent. Hardware/software code-designers also need to solve the design time problem and bring embedded devices at the right time to the market. From silicon design to embedded systems prototyping and from product development to deployment and sustenance, eInfochips maps the journey of its customer by extending hardware and embedded software design services like system modeling and design, rapid prototyping, analytical verification, embedded system deployment, cost restrictions are to be taken care of.
4. Size Constraints
IoT embedded devices are packaged and integrated in a small chip which has low weight and less power consumption. Many design issues come with these integrated chips and size constraints is one of them which engineers face. The size needs to be understood and it cannot be compromised on the given design. Sometimes the IoT devices needs to situated in secluded places where access is hard and these issues become even more difficult.
Testing is a mandatory step in the IoT product hardware design. After the product is made, the system’s performance, consistency and validation is checked using the testing phase of the product based on hardware-based test tools. It also involves checking whether functional verification has been implemented correctly or not and checking if the final product matches with the requirement and passes all the quality standards.
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